how did duchamp and the surrealists challenge the definition of art?

how did duchamp and the surrealists challenge the definition of art?

How did duchamp and the surrealists challenge the definition of art?
The roots of Dada lay in pre-war avant-garde. The term anti-art, a precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp around 1913 to characterize works which challenge accepted definitions of art. Cubism and the development of collage and abstract art would inform the movement’s detachment from the constraints of reality and convention. The work of French poets, Italian Futurists and the German Expressionists would influence Dada’s rejection of the tight correlation between words and meaning.
Common to all Surrealistic enterprises was a post-Freudian desire to set free and explore the imaginative and creative powers of the mind. Surrealism was originally Paris based. Its influence spread through a number of journals and international exhibitions, the most important examples of the latter being the International Surrealist Exhibition at the New Burlington Galleries, London and the Fantastic Art Dada, Surrealism at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, both held in 1936.

How did duchamp and the surrealists challenge the definition of art?
However, Buchloh’s reading, more an introduction to an interpretation of Marcel Broodthaers’s institutional critique than a historicization of Duchamp’s installation, leaves unexplored how Duchamp’s construction displaced Surrealist practice from other developments: namely, the “return to a habitable world” concurrently undertaken in Breton’s myth and in Kiesler’s exhibition design. Duchamp’s installation offered not just a general de-deification of Surrealism, but contested Kiesler’s fantasy of framelessness. [36] Instead of providing an insulating mythological womb protecting against displacement, Duchamp’s installation in fact forced artists to experience their displaced status firsthand in the disorganized and disorganizing space of his installation and in the disorientation of their objects in that space. This, in effect, introduced a political framework to a display of art intent on escaping it.
Additionally, Duchamp’s installation challenged the psychological depth of Matta’s expressionist aesthetics built upon that perspective. Matta frequently explained that his paintings developed “a morphological projection of a psychological state.” Duchamp’s installation, on the other hand, refused any intentional psychic content or metaphysics of interiority. Rather, it set up the conditions for a physical and conceptual experience wholly transpiring during the visitor’s interaction within it. Its logic, instead of being representative or expressive, was performative, blocking any immersion within the displayed paintings. This performative aspect no doubt continued the logic of the readymade, necessitating the viewer’s participation in the creation of meaning. [47] By forcing viewers to struggle to see the work through the string, which physically interfered with their bodily space, it brought what was the readymade’s collaborative conceptual act in interpretation to a physical level. If, in 1957, Duchamp famously dismissed the creative model where “. . . the artist acts like a mediumistic being who, from the labyrinth beyond time and space, seeks his way out to a clearing,” then he appears to have combated that creative model by inserting the viewer within his own version of a labyrinthine frame in 1942. [48] Not only do these readings of First Papers appear to contradict the form and function of Duchamp’s installation, but they also plainly fail to take account of the radicality of the labyrinthine structure that they so often cite as an explanatory model (just as they fail to examine the structure of the redefined readymade). By aestheticizing the labyrinth, comparing it to the organizing and rationalizing spatial matrix of perspective, and viewing it as a means for psychological expression and intentional meaning, these readings end up vulgarizing and even dehistoricizing this potentially powerful conceptual complex.

How did duchamp and the surrealists challenge the definition of art?
Discover the role of collaboration and play in Dada.
A form of art, developed in the late 1950s, which involves the creation of an enveloping aesthetic or sensory experience in a particular environment, often inviting active engagement or immersion by the spectator.

How did duchamp and the surrealists challenge the definition of art?
A modern art museum, on the other hand, with all its enigmatic conceptual art and it’s seemingly pointless everyday-objects-turned-sculptures, can be a frightening and flummoxing experience, but never really boring. People seem to despise the lack of sense that is so apparent in modern and contemporary art but, for me, that lack of sense is the most exciting part. I love walking into a room with a looping video of a girl picking her nose and then shouting ‘hate’ at the top of her lungs. I enjoy looking at a pile of boxes and trying, and failing, to work out what exactly this work represents. I adore the crazed, maniacal performance artists dancing on top of marmalade while simultaneously whipping themselves while a discombobulated crowd looks on. The madness intrigues me.
The iconic artist had a mortal dread of hair, posed as a cheese merchant to outfox the Nazis – and made artworks out of sperm. Here’s a dictionary of Duchamp by Thomas Girst

How did duchamp and the surrealists challenge the definition of art?
Few artists can boast of having changed the course of art history in the way that Marcel Duchamp did. By challenging the very notion of what is art, his first readymades sent shock waves across the art world that can still be felt today. Duchamp’s ongoing preoccupation with the mechanisms of desire and human sexuality as well as his fondness for wordplay aligns his work with that of Surrealists, although he steadfastly refused to be affiliated with any specific artistic movement per se. In his insistence that art should be driven by ideas above all, Duchamp is generally considered to be the father of Conceptual art. His refusal to follow a conventional artistic path, matched only by a horror of repetition which accounts for the relatively small number of works Duchamp produced in the span of his short career, ultimately led to his withdrawal from the art world. In later years, Duchamp famously spent his time playing chess, even as he labored away in secret at his last enigmatic masterpiece, which was only unveiled after his death.
French Painter and Sculptor

References:

http://www.golob-gm.si/5-marcel-duchamp-as-rectified-readymade/b-surrealist-installation-as-a-labyrinth.htm
http://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/themes/dada/marcel-duchamp-and-the-readymade/
http://www.dadart.com/dadaism/dada/035a-duchamp-cage.html
http://m.theartstory.org/artist/duchamp-marcel/
http://www.edwardhopper.net/biography.jsp

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goya black paintings

goya black paintings

The 14 ‘Black Paintings’ paintings (now in the Museo del Prado), so called because of the dark tones and predominance of black, originally decorated the Quinta del Sordo (House of the Deaf Man). They were painted in oils on the walls of two rooms, on the ground floor and first floor, and transferred to canvas in 1873. Goya acquired the house in September 1819, but probably did not begin the paintings before the following year, after his recovery from serious illness. When Goya recovered, his deafness remained, and this changed his character in a way that is reflected in his work. The constant fear of a relapse made him impatient, and this is also evident in his technique. As his monstrous imagining found expression, he darkened the walls in two rooms with terrible scenes of witches and visions of evil spirits. A fantastic horde of cynically grimacing hags and ghosts fill these rooms.
The paintings must have been finished by 17 September 1823, when he donated the property to his 17-year-old grandson, shortly before he went into hiding. Though it is possible to reconstruct the arrangement of the paintings in the two rooms, many of their subjects defy description and the meaning of these sombre, horrific inventions is as difficult to decipher as their appearance is sinister and forbidding. ‘The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters’, Goya’s title to what was possibly his first design for the frontispiece of Los Caprichos, would have been even more fitting as a title to this array of nightmare visions, created by the artist in his mid-seventies.

Goya black paintings
Not all of the Black Paintings share the limited colours of the previous two examples. Fight with Cudgels shows Goya’s dramatic use of different shades of blue and red as two men beat each other. While in the original version they were fighting on a meadow, the painting was damaged during the transfer and the version at the Prado has been painted over, stressing the eeriness of the fighters, unable to escape each other’s blows due to their knee-deep entrapment in a quagmire. It has been taken as a premonition of the fight of the two Spains that would dominate the following decades. Fantastic Vision also uses bright red in the garb of one of the two giant figures hovering over a group of horsemen and also in the feather of the hat of a rifleman taking aim at these figures.
If the light-toned bucolic paintings are also the works of Goya, it may be that his illness and the turbulent events of the Trienio Liberal led him to paint over them. [6] Bozal has suggested that those paintings also were painted by Goya as this is the only way to understand why he reused them. However, Nigel Glendinning assumes that the paintings “already adorned the walls of Quinta del Sordo when he bought it.” [7] Whatever the truth of the matter, the Black Paintings murals probably date from 1820 and were likely finished no later than 1823 when Goya, departing for Bordeaux, left the villa to his grandson Mariano, [8] perhaps due to fear of reprisals after the fall of Rafael Riego and the republican army. Mariano de Goya transferred ownership of the villa to his father Javier de Goya in 1830.

Goya black paintings
Social, political, and physical transformations in Goya’s life changed the ebullient youth of Madrid into the reclusive man who painted some of art history’s most disturbed and disturbing pictures.
In February 1819, Francisco de Goya, whose own ears were already rushing with the deafness brought on by lead poisoning, signed the deed of purchase for an isolated estate known as The Deaf Man’s House. It was named for the previous tenant, but the nominative determinism is a telling detail of the great painter’s later years. Onto the walls of his final home, Goya would paint a series of tenebrous and horrifying works which he never intended anyone to see. They came to be known as The Black Paintings.

Goya black paintings
This astonishing series of fourteen paintings belonging to the Pinturas negras feature haunting, almost ghoulish themes reflecting the surplus of Goya’s bitter observations on humanity. Namely, in 1819 the artist moved to a house located on the brinks of Madrid called Quinta del Sordo (Deaf Man’s Villa), and at that point, he was already a senior (at the age of 72) and almost deaf himself. Initially, the paintings were painted as murals on the walls of the house, and later they were transferred from the walls and attached to the canvas.
Francisco Goya – Fantastic vision or Asmodea (Visión fantástica o Asmodea), 1819 and 1823. Oil on wall transferred to canvas, Height: 127 cm (50 ″); Width: 263 cm (103.5 ″). Museo del Prado Collection

Whenever the attribution of a famous work of art is questioned, its aura of authenticity flickers like a faulty light bulb. In a museum, we gaze reverently at the slightest doodle of an artist in the pantheon; we stride impatiently past the canvas of an unknown painter or, far worse, a work bearing the damning label ”School of ———-.” In the case of the Black Paintings, this curatorial certification is compounded by a biographical mystique: the aged, deaf, misanthropic artist painted these unearthly images as his companions in a hermetic rural retreat. So, in addition to bearing a great-artist sticker, the Black Paintings come with a narrative of the most compelling sort. Like van Gogh’s crow-haunted fields and Pollock’s twisted skeins of paint, Goya’s Black Paintings are popularly believed to be the outflow of a tormented great soul. A reattribution would strip away their pained sincerity along with their authenticity.
”I’m totally unconvinced by it, because I’ve read all the documents he is using,” Glendinning says. ”Inevitably, a lot of this is hypothetical, but his hypotheses don’t in the least convince me. My view would be that the documents don’t actually say whether the house had two stories or one.” The philological evidence regarding the Brugada inventory also underwhelms him: ”History of the language isn’t an exact science. What people do is find the earliest reference they can. People don’t go looking for these technical terms used for furniture.” While Glendinning agrees that the grand staircase in the Quinta was added after Goya’s death, he emphasizes that Carderera reports seeing wall paintings and that the earlier staircase presumably led to a second story. The missing testimony of Goya’s friends? They were mostly old men who died at about the same time he did. Junquera insists that Glendinning fails to understand the rustic nature of the Quinta and thinks that ”a country house in Spain is like a manor house in Surrey.” He says, dismissively, ”Glendinning knows nothing about the decoration of the 18th century.”

References:

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Paintings
http://medium.com/mutualart/decoding-goyas-black-paintings-61ce237f61c
http://www.widewalls.ch/francisco-goya-black-paintings/
http://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/27/magazine/the-secret-of-the-black-paintings.html
http://www.franciscogoya.com/

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gustav klimpt face brooch

gustav klimpt face brooch

As many as 14 of Klimt’s works were destroyed on May 8, 1945, when the Schloss Immendorf, a castle in a the small Austrian village of Immendorf that had been used as a safe storage space for looted and stolen art during the war, was burnt down by an SS unit. Among the most devastating losses were Klimt’s controversial paintings for the University of Vienna ceiling, now preserved solely through preparatory sketches and a number of photographs.
Arguably more famous than Klimt’s entwined, decoratively robed lovers on a cliff edge, however, is his 1907 Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I. This was commissioned in 1903 by Bloch-Bauer’s husband, a Jewish banker and sugar producer, and sees Klimt treat the sitter’s face and arms with a straightforward realism, while her billowing dress and intricately rendered, gold surroundings are a study in ornate abstraction. The arresting painting remained in the Bloch-Bauer family’s possession until it was seized by the Nazis during World War II and hung in the Austrian State Gallery. In 2006, after a lengthy court battle, one of Bloch-Bauer’s nieces, Maria Altmann reclaimed ownership of the work, selling it at auction the same year for $135 million – the most money ever paid for a work of art at auction.

Gustav klimpt face brooch
The Neue Galerie’s “Gustav Klimt and Adele Bloch-Bauer: The Woman in Gold,” which opened on Thursday, a day after the film, is a small exhibition centered on “Adele Bloch-Bauer I” and conveys the biography of the painting through vintage photographs of the principal players, sketchy preparatory drawings for Adele Bloch-Bauer’s portrait and discursive text panels. The show also features seven other paintings by Klimt from private collections, including two pastoral landscapes; three small, lovely portraits of women; and “The Dancer” (1916-17), a near life-size picture of a standing woman enveloped in a floral-patterned dress. Rounding things out, an assortment of jewelry and decorative objects serves to typify the luxurious lifestyle of Adele and Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer, the art collectors who commissioned the portrait.
For all its optical dazzle and dreamy poetry, however, it’s not one of the most exciting paintings of modern times. Flattened to the point of suffocation by its decorative excess, its erotic appeal chastely muted, it has a fusty, languid feeling. Were it not for what happened to it years after its completion, the work would not be nearly so famous as it is today.

Moriz and Hermine’s support for contemporary art and design was to extend beyond Klimt. They assembled a substantial collection of silverware and ceramics from the Wiener Werkstätte (Vienna Workshop) – they also became shareholders after it faced bankruptcy – and in 1913 commissioned Hoffmann to design and furnish their apartment in a newly built five-storey residential building on wealthy Wohllebengasse (‘Good Living Street’). The couple’s modernist sensibility is evident in Klimt’s portrait, which was first shown in late 1903 in an incomplete but advanced state at the Klimt Kollektive exhibition at the Secession. Klimt’s ‘ladies’ portraits’ were intended to be part of a carefully designed environment that was a Gesamtkunstwerk or ‘total work of art’. A photograph published in a contemporary magazine, Die Kunst , shows that the Gallia portrait was displayed in the exhibition within a typically Secessionist interior, between two cubic chairs designed by Koloman Moser. When the portrait was hung at the Gallias’ home, Hermine’s white dress and the picture’s long rectangular frame complemented the apartment’s fluted white neoclassical columns.
This is the only painting by Klimt in a British public collection. Hermine Gallia, née Hamburger, was born into a Jewish family in Western Silesia (now part of the Czech Republic). In 1893 she married her uncle, Moriz Gallia, who was 12 years older and originally from Moravia. Hermine and her husband were among the many thousands of Jews in the Austro-Hungarian Empire who had moved to Vienna, where they helped create a newly wealthy middle class in the city.

While historic restrictions mean it’s impossible to tell what Schiele’s – or anyone’s, for that matter – sexual and gender identities truly were, there is one thing that’s certain, Kallir says: “Fluidity is universal.”
Schiele already knew about the consequences of his works of art that have been called erotic, and even grotesque, by critics. In Schiele’s time – an era during which there were shifts in art and society – his work was considered pornographic and offensive by both conservative Viennese authorities and the public.

The painting Litzlberg am Attersee was auctioned for $40.4 million November 2011. [39]
Klimt wrote little about his vision or his methods. He wrote mostly postcards to Flöge and kept no diary. In a rare writing called “Commentary on a non-existent self-portrait”, he states “I have never painted a self-portrait. I am less interested in myself as a subject for a painting than I am in other people, above all women. There is nothing special about me. I am a painter who paints day after day from morning to night . Who ever wants to know something about me . ought to look carefully at my pictures.” [22]

References:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/03/arts/design/review-gustav-klimt-and-adele-bloch-bauer-focuses-on-portrait-rich-in-history.html
http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/gustav-klimt-portrait-of-hermine-gallia
http://www.dazeddigital.com/art-photography/article/42322/1/lgbtq-legacy-egon-schiele-art-painting-vienna-exhibition-royal-academy
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Klimt
http://www.gustav-klimt.com/

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klimt signature

klimt signature

Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objets d’art. Klimt’s primary subject was the female body, [1] and his works are marked by a frank eroticism. [2] In addition to his figurative works, which include allegories and portraits, he painted landscapes. Among the artists of the Vienna Secession, Klimt was the most influenced by Japanese art and its methods.
His Nuda Veritas (1899) defined his bid to further “shake up” the establishment. [15] The starkly naked red-headed woman holds the mirror of truth, while above her is a quotation by Friedrich Schiller in stylized lettering: “If you cannot please everyone with your deeds and your art, please only a few. To please many is bad.” [16]

Klimt signature
Long Sleeve Shirt
Kids Long Sleeve Shirt

Klimt signature
Klimt signed many of his drawings one name over the other in block letters. Unsigned drawings are stampled with his estate stamp. ” Gustav Klimt Nachlass,”
“Studie fьr Die Braut”. Drawn 1917-1918. Pencil on paper bearing inscription.

Klimt signature
The surviving black-and-white image, printed onto a 430x300cm canvas prepped with gesso, guided the re-creation of the painting. Using this image, it was also possible to reconstruct the depth of tone of the colours in the original painting. To obtain the tones themselves, Klimt’s colour palette was studied together with surviving colour sketches for Medicine.
David Carillo guilding Klimt’s work

  • Natural white, matte, ultra smooth background
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  • Natural white, matte, ultra smooth background
  • 100% cotton, acid and lignin-free archival paper
  • Custom trimmed with border for framing; 1″ for x-small and small, 2″ for all larger sizes
  • Every order is custom made just for you
  • For more info click here

References:

http://www.teepublic.com/en-gb/pillow/3112705-gustav-klimts-signature
http://klimtexperts.com/klimt-signature.html
http://www.factum-arte.com/pag/1171/Medicine
http://society6.com/product/gustav-klimts-signature_print
http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/famous-artists/gustav-klimt.htm

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georges braque the portuguese, 1911

georges braque the portuguese, 1911

To understand Cubism it helps to go back to Cézanne’s still life paintings or even further, to the Renaissance. Let me use an example that worked nicely in the classroom. I was lecturing, trying to untangle Cubism while drinking incresingly cold coffee from a paper cup. I set the cup on the desk in the front of the room and said, “If I were a Renaissance artist in mid-15th century Italy painting that cup on that table, I would position myself at particular point in space and construct the surrounding objects and space frozen in that spot and from that single perspective. On the other hand, if this was the late 19th century and I was Cézanne, I might allow myself to open this view up quite a bit. Perhaps I would focus on, and record, the perceptual changes of shape and line that result when I shift my weight from one leg to the other or when I lean in toward the cup to get a closer look. I might even allow myself to render slightly around the far side of the paper cup since, as Cézanne, I am interested in vision and memory working together. Finally, if I were Braque or Picasso in the early 20th century, I would want to express even more on the canvas. I would not be satisfied with the limiting conventions of Renaissance perspective nor even with the initial explorations of the master Cézanne.
As a Cubist, I want to express my total visual understanding of the paper coffee cup. I want more than the Renaissance painter or even Cézanne, I want to express the entire cup simultaneously on the static surface of the canvas since I can hold all that visual information in my memory. I want to render the cup’s front, its sides, its back, and its inner walls, its bottom from both inside and out, and I want to do this on a flat canvas. How can this be done? The answer is provided by The Portuguese. In this canvas, everything was fractured. The guitar player and the dock was just so many pieces of broken form, almost broken glass. By breaking these objects into smaller elements, Braque and Picasso are able to overcome the unified singularity of an object and instead transform it into an object of vision. At this point the class began to look a little confused, so I turned back to the paper cup and began to tear it into pieces (I had finished the coffee). If I want to be able to show you both the back and front and inside and outside simultaneously, I can fragment the object. Basically, this is the strategy of the Cubists. – from smarthistory

The painting is one of the earliest cubist paintings. While it is frequently mentioned in monographs, textbooks and articles on the artist as well as Cubism, this painting has never been a source of serious controversy. Most of his paintings consist of still lives which are remarkable for their low-key colour harmonies, robust construction, and serene, meditative quality. Cubism is the technique that was used in the creation of the Portuguese painting. Georges Braque introduced this technique of painting in 1911. The painting features stencilled letters BAL and numerals under them. The painter first introduced the still life technique in 1910 before introducing the Cubism style.
While working on this painting, Georges Braque combined the two techniques to come up with the Portuguese. The stencilled numbers and letters in the art are the assertions of realistic intentions of the Cubism technique. In the painting, the stencilled or written letters across the surface represent the most conclusive ways of emphasizing the picture’s two-dimensional character and they also help stress the quality of the artwork. The Portuguese painting marks an interesting stage and point in the development of Georges’ arts. At the top right-hand corner of the painting, there are D BAL letters and numerals under them. Although Georges had included various numbers as well as letters into the painting, they were the representational elements of the art.

After a period of healing, Braque returned to his artistic ability in the Cubist movement. Braque entered what is called a synthetic phase of Cubism. He began to use more colors and to represent objects through large planes. Braque created “Woman Musician” in 1917, which exhibited the geometric planes and strong colors of synthetic Cubism (Braque). He began to stray away from Cubism and began to draw with a flowing technique such as the smooth framework of “Still Life with Playing Cards.” After this move, Braque experimented with pictures of pagan women, pedestal tables, birds, ancient Greek pottery, and figures. Braque finally won the Carnegie Prize in 1937. He became a world-renowned artist and in 1961 he received the highest honor—he became the first living artist to have his works displayed in the Louvre.
Braque admired the work of the Fauves, who were a small group of artists that were known for their wild, vibrant art style. Along with the admiration of the explosion of colors, Braque followed the works of Matisse, Duffy, Derain, and others (Bordvick).

Georges braque the portuguese, 1911
To understand Cubism it helps to go back to Cézanne’s still life paintings or even further, to the Renaissance. Let me use an example that worked nicely in the classroom. I was lecturing, trying to untangle Cubism while drinking incresingly cold coffee from a paper cup. I set the cup on the desk in the front of the room and said, “If I were a Renaissance artist in mid-15th century Italy painting that cup on that table, I would position myself at particular point in space and construct the surrounding objects and space frozen in that spot and from that single perspective. On the other hand, if this was the late 19th century and I was Cézanne, I might allow myself to open this view up quite a bit. Perhaps I would focus on, and record, the perceptual changes of shape and line that result when I shift my weight from one leg to the other or when I lean in toward the cup to get a closer look. I might even allow myself to render slightly around the far side of the paper cup since, as Cézanne, I am interested in vision and memory working together. Finally, if I were Braque or Picasso in the early 20th century, I would want to express even more on the canvas. I would not be satisfied with the limiting conventions of Renaissance perspective nor even with the initial explorations of the master Cézanne.
As a Cubist, I want to express my total visual understanding of the paper coffee cup. I want more than the Renaissance painter or even Cézanne, I want to express the entire cup simultaneously on the static surface of the canvas since I can hold all that visual information in my memory. I want to render the cup’s front, its sides, its back, and its inner walls, its bottom from both inside and out, and I want to do this on a flat canvas. How can this be done? The answer is provided by The Portuguese. In this canvas, everything was fractured. The guitar player and the dock was just so many pieces of broken form, almost broken glass. By breaking these objects into smaller elements, Braque and Picasso are able to overcome the unified singularity of an object and instead transform it into an object of vision. At this point the class began to look a little confused, so I turned back to the paper cup and began to tear it into pieces (I had finished the coffee). If I want to be able to show you both the back and front and inside and outside simultaneously, I can fragment the object. Basically, this is the strategy of the Cubists. – from smarthistory

As a Cubist, I want to express my total visual understanding of the paper coffee cup. I want more than the Renaissance painter or even Cézanne, I want to express the entire cup simultaneously on the static surface of the canvas since I can hold all that visual information in my memory. I want to render the cup’s front, its sides, its back, and its inner walls, its bottom from both inside and out, and I want to do this on a flat canvas. How can this be done?
Georges Braque, The Portuguese, 1911, oil on canvas, 116.8 x 81 cm (Kunstmuseum Basel, Basel, Switzerland)

The Portuguese is oil on canvas, completed in 1911 by Braque. In the painting, everything is fractured. The dock and the guitar player were constructed through so many pieces of broken forms, almost as if they were broken glass. By breaking these objects into smaller pieces, Braque was able to overcome the unified single nature of the object, creating a rare vision. The neutral colors make the content unclear. The painting was inspired by memories of a Portuguese musician in Marseilles. Braque uses wallpaper, painted paper and newspaper, along with light brown and dark tones to bring out colors. Henceforth, you will not see the painting for what it is, but search for its meaning in the objects.
Cloonan, William. “Braque’s Le Portugais and a Portuguese Nun.” French, American Association of Teachers of. The French Review. 1994.

References:

http://www.georgesbraque.net/portuguese/
http://www.people.vcu.edu/~djbromle/modern-art/02/Georges-Braque/index.htm
http://grandcentralpark.org/2019/04/19/georges-braque-the-portuguese-analysis/
http://20thcart.tumblr.com/post/63909823111/georges-braquecubism/amp
http://www.georgesbraque.org/the-portuguese.jsp

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how many surrealists light bulb

how many surrealists light bulb

How many surrealists light bulb
Please help me understand them all.
(c) Schrodinger’s cat walks into a bar. And doesn’t.

How many surrealists light bulb
How many surrealists does it take to screw in a lightbulb.
“The greatest obstacle to discovering the shape of the earth, the continents, and the oceans was not ignorance but the illusion of knowledge.” What I particularly like is the falseness of the mirror is shown as both false and true. The world is rarely this or that. Another insight / joke.

Four to post that the URLs were posted incorrectly and then post the corrected URL.
A: Ten: one to hold the bulb and nine to turn the ladder.”

How many sopranos does it take to change a light bulb?
At least ten. One to stand on the chair and do it, and the other nine to say “Oh, that’s much too high for her!”
How many cameras does it take to change a light bulb?
Cameras don’t change light bulbs, photographers do.

How many surrealists light bulb
So, I got to the museum just as it opened at 11am and even aside from the special exhibit, it was so worth the trip. The have in the permanent collection quite a few works by Salvador Dali (both paintings and sculpture — including the Mae West Lips sofa). Here are two of the exhibit images I bothered to photograph:
Oddly the one that looks like a church and which sits just kitty-corner from the museum, is the Arminius, a center for public debate, events, etc… and apparently was never, ever actually a church (or at least as far as I could find out). It was not open when I passed by, but there’s a glorious mosaic over the door.

References:

http://www.rebresearch.com/blog/surrealist-joke-2/
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Lightbulb_joke/Archive_1
http://www.raybromley.com/lightbulb.html
http://delaneysinthehague.wordpress.com/2017/02/25/how-many-surrealists-does-it-take-to-change-a-lightbulb/
http://www.rebresearch.com/blog/surrealist-joke-2/

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kurt schwitters merzbild

kurt schwitters merzbild

Schwitters constructed this assemblage from scraps of modern life collected on the streets of Hannover: commercial labels, newspaper clippings, printed and handwritten text, bits of fabric and wood, and two corks, among other items. In arranging the topmost layer along a perpendicular grid, however, Schwitters imposed a sense of order on the material cacophony. The objects were pasted and hammered onto what appears to be an earlier oil painting, its moody greens and blues still partly visible. The reworking testifies to a conceptual shift: from the work of art as picture to the work of art as surface for the accumulation of matter. This move, from an optical model of art-making to a tactile one, was revolutionary.
At the center of this large-scale assemblage sits a vocabulary card printed with a cluster of orange cherries and the German and French words for the fruit. Above, scrawled in pencil, floats the phrase Ich liebe Dir!: faulty German for “I love you” (Ich liebe dich). The words invoke Schwitters’s 1919 poem “To Anna Blume,” which first established his fame.

Kurt schwitters merzbild
Merz Picture 32A belongs to the so-called Merz series, a term Schwitters made up by cutting a scrap from the second syllable of the German word “Kommerz” (commerce), which he included in one of his early collage paintings. Schwitters was trained as a painter, but as World War I came to an end he adopted collage as his preferred process, saying, “Everything had broken down in any case and new things had to be made out of the fragments.” 1  With his Merz project he aimed “to create connections, preferably between everything in this world.”
Kurt Schwitters made this work from scraps and objects he collected from the streets of his hometown of Hanover, Germany. Although he scavenged the fragments, Schwitters carefully composed and affixed them with glue and nails to a painted board to make this collage. Merz Picture 32A. The Cherry Picture has many layers: light and dark paint on the board form the base of the collage and give an illusion of depth; affixed to the board are various fabrics, an image of kittens, candy wrappers, newspaper clippings, and a flashcard of cherries, onto which Schwitters penciled the ungrammatical phrase “Ich liebe dir!” (“I love she!”). Three-dimensional objects, including a broken pipe, protrude from the surface.

Kurt schwitters merzbild
The name Dada first appeared in Hugo Ball’s magazine Cabaret Voltaire, published in Zurich in 1916, to define an irrational, provocative art that employed unorthodox techniques. It soon spread through many other European cities such as Berlin, Cologne, Paris and Hanover. The Hanover Dadaist group was headed by Kurt Schwitters, an artist who, although inspired by the revolutionary atmosphere of post-war Germany, was more in tune with the values of constructive abstraction than with the subversive politicisation of the Dadaists.
Through his collages and assemblages, generally entitled or subtitled Merz, Schwitters aimed to achieve an artistic synthesis, a new aesthetic order using waste products, convinced — to quote his own words — that “one can even shout out through refuse.” The artist had invented the word Merz by chance when he cut it out of the longer Kommerz, which had fascinated him for its sound. Merz was a blend of the Dadaist pursuit of irony and paradox through the transformation of objects and the Russian avant-gardes’ notion of art as construction. It also drew from Cubist collages, although unlike the objects the Cubists incorporated into their compositions, the materials Schwitters employed in his works were not representations of external reality but mere signs; they had no value in their own right, only as integral parts of a composition.

Kurt schwitters merzbild
This Merz, an invented word that Schwitters gave to all his compositions, was created in Holland from objects found on the beach at Kijkduin. The element of chance intervenes to turn these random, throwaway objects into art and is used to break down artistic conventions. It establishes a dialogue with the artist’s desire to introduce the Constructivist aesthetic into a work in which flat planes and geometrical strips of colour prevail.
Terms of use

During his time in Ambleside Schwitters created a sequence of proto-pop art pictures, such as For Käte, 1947, after the encouragement from his friend, Käte Steinitz. Having emigrated to the United States in 1936, Steinitz sent Schwitters letters describing life in the emerging consumer society, and wrapped the letters in pages of comics to give a flavour of the new world, which she encouraged Schwitters to ‘Merz’. [56]
Schwitters spent the last one-and-half years of the war working as a drafter in a factory just outside Hanover. He was conscripted into the 73rd Hanoverian Regiment in March 1917, but exempted on medical grounds in June of the same year. By his own account, his time as a draftsman influenced his later work, and inspired him to depict machines as metaphors of human activity.

References:

http://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/kurt-schwitters-merz-picture-32-a-the-cherry-picture-1921/
http://www.museothyssen.org/en/collection/artists/schwitters-kurt/merzbild-1a-psychiatrist
http://www.museothyssen.org/en/collection/artists/schwitters-kurt/merzbild-kijkduin
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Schwitters
http://www.dadart.com/dadaism/dada/038-Schwitters.html

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jacob lawrence migration series analysis

jacob lawrence migration series analysis

Jacob lawrence migration series analysis
The works consist of casein tempera paint applied to hardboard panels, atop a traditional gesso layer of rabbit-skin glue and whiting. Lawrence made his own casein tempera, purchasing the dry pigments from Fedanzie Sperrle and using them unmixed so that the colors would not vary between panels. With the panels laid out, he worked systematically to apply one color to each, starting with black and moving on to the lighter colors. [3]
The series is based on the Great Migration of African Americans from the rural south to the urban north that began in the 1910s. The early part of the migration ran through 1930 and numbered some 1.6 million people. The panels depict the dire state of black life in the South, with poor wages, economic hardship due to the boll weevil, and a justice system rigged against them. The North offered better wages and slightly more rights, although was not without its problems; living conditions were much more crowded in the cities, which led to new threats such as tuberculosis outbreaks. The final panel notes that the migration continues. Migrants were still moving north in the 1950s and 60s.

Jacob lawrence migration series analysis
If the Great Migration provided him with geographical advantages, it was Harlem, then in the midst of the cultural and intellectual outpouring known as the Harlem Renaissance (1920s–1930s), that inspired him to make art. As he once described his beloved neighborhood: “All these people on the street, various colors, so much pattern, so much movement, so much color, so much vitality, so much energy.” 2 The textures of Harlem, and the narrative dynamism of the songs, Bible stories, sermons, and tales of his neighbors’ journeys north that he witnessed in church, shaped Lawrence’s approach to art making. He realized that through painting he, too, could give voice to the experiences of his people.
Though he came of age before the Civil Rights Movement brought African Americans the rights they had long been denied, Jacob Lawrence (American, 1917–2000) forged a prominent career as an artist, chronicling the story of black life in America through his paintings. Born in New Jersey and raised from the age of thirteen in Harlem, New York City, this Northeast native had southern roots. He was the child of migrants who moved, together with millions of other African Americans, from the impoverished rural South to urban, industrialized Midwestern and Northeastern cities during the mass relocation known as the Great Migration (1915–1950s). Lawrence maintained that he was “a child of the Great Migration,” which shaped the course of his own and his fellow African Americans’ lives. 1

Jacob lawrence migration series analysis
As used here, the categories “Activist” and “Historian” bear some consideration. One might wonder about the logic for identifying musicians with the former and artists with the latter, especially when the federally sponsored social documentary initiative of the 1930s was at least as concerned with improving its subjects’ abysmal conditions as with preserving a record thereof for posterity. That correlation of musician/activist and artist/historian would seem to reinscribe, subtextually, an ambivalence toward politically engaged fine art that is more characteristic of mid-century modernism than of either the sensibilities of the 1930s and 1940s or those of today, when activist art has been recuperated as a viable classification. Another manifestation of this apparent unease is the evasion of the term “social realism” in the catalogue essays, even though it seems an obvious association for Lawrence’s project. That lacuna is hard to square with Dickerman’s text, which posits the Migration Series “as an ingenious form of political speech—a call for action” (29).
The Migration Series’s bifurcated acquisition arrangement informs its most recent reunion in two exhibitions: MoMA’s One-Way Ticket: Jacob Lawrence’s Migration Series and Other Visions of the Great Movement North, organized by Leah Dickerman in 2015, and the Phillips Collection’s forthcoming People on the Move: Beauty and Struggle in Jacob Lawrence’s Migration Series, which Elsa Smithgall is organizing for 2016–17. The accompanying catalogue, Jacob Lawrence: The Migration Series, serves both shows and comprises three sections: essays by Dickerman on the series’s production and Smithgall on its acquisition; entries by curatorial assistant Jodi Roberts on the formal, social, cultural, and historical references encoded in each panel; and ten newly commissioned poems selected and introduced by poet Elizabeth Alexander.

Jacob lawrence migration series analysis
In the final panel of The Migration Series, Lawrence leaves us with this message: “And the migrants kept coming.” Completing his series in 1941 at the start of the second Great Migration, Lawrence understood that the ongoing impact of the migration would continue to reverberate for decades to come. Indeed, just prior to his death in 2000, he witnessed the extraordinary reversal of the Great Migration with the accelerated return of African Americans to the South. Lawrence’s panels provide a moving portrait of the broader human quest for freedom, equality, and opportunity that fuels ongoing patterns of migration around the world today.
Explore the animated map showing patterns of African American migration from the South to the North between 1920 and 1970 and the reverse migration from the North to the South between 1980 and 2010.

Jacob lawrence migration series analysis
One by one, the people left. Cotton sacks shed in place, a silent seepage from the fields, a human rivulet, and then a flood of six million black refugees fleeing the terrors of the Jim Crow South from World War I to 1970, an Overground Railroad that churned for nearly three generations and transformed the culture and social geography of 20th-century America. This leaderless revolution would come to be known as the Great Migration, and it would reshape every Northern and Western city it touched. By the time it was over, a rural people had become urban, and a Southern people had spread themselves over the country. Yet it was largely unrecognized, invisible to a majority of Americans while it was underway and almost too big to grasp even for those who were part of it.
The migration appears below the surface of the text, though it was crucial to Lawrence’s early development and ultimately his life’s work. He took care to paint a lone boy set apart from the migrating crowd in a couple of the panels, and in another with his chin on a table, looking up to his mother slicing a slab of fatback. But the text makes sparse connection to Lawrence as a child of migration, or to the migrant mother who enrolled her son in the Utopia Children’s House, which included the art classes that would set him on his path; it was her brightly colored throw rugs in their tenement apartment that had imprinted on him the shapes and pigments for which he would become known.

References:

http://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/jacob-lawrence-migration-series-1940-41/
http://www.caareviews.org/reviews/2687
http://lawrencemigration.phillipscollection.org/culture/introduction
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/28/books/review/jacob-lawrence-the-migration-series-by-leah-dickerman-and-elsa-smithgall.html
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Lawrence

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mondrian what art movement

mondrian what art movement

Mondrian what art movement
In the early 19th century, Paris was the place where all the exciting new art was happening and Mondrian felt he had to go there. He took a big risk for his art. He left behind his home in the Netherlands in 1911 and the woman he was going to marry, to pursue his career as an artist in Paris.
Squares, straight lines. and dance moves! Explore the abstract art of Piet Mondrian

Mondrian what art movement
In 1917 Piet Mondrian cofounded the De Stijl movement, which rejected visually perceived reality as subject matter and restricted form to the most basic elements. Such works as Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow (c. 1930) reflect this criteria. Mondrian’s late masterpieces, including Broadway Boogie Woogie (1942–43), replaced black lines with coloured bands.
In 1907 Amsterdam sponsored the Quadrennial Exhibition, featuring such painters as Kees van Dongen, Otto van Rees, and Jan Sluijters, who were Post-Impressionists using pure colours in bold, nonliteral ways. Their work was strongly influenced by the forceful expression and use of colour in the art of Post-Impressionist Vincent van Gogh, whose work had been featured in a large exhibition in Amsterdam in 1905. Such daring use of colour was reflected in Mondrian’s Red Cloud, a rapidly executed sketch from 1907. By the time he painted Woods near Oele in 1908, new values began to appear in his work, including a linear movement that was somewhat reminiscent of the Norwegian painter Edvard Munch and a colour scheme—based on hues of yellow, orange, blue, violet, and red—that was suggestive of the palette of contemporary German Expressionist painters. With this vigorous painting of considerable size, Mondrian broke away from the national tradition of Dutch painting.

Mondrian’s art was intimately related to his spiritual and philosophical studies. In 1908, he became interested in the theosophical movement launched by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky in the late 19th century, and in 1909 he joined the Dutch branch of the Theosophical Society. The work of Blavatsky and a parallel spiritual movement, Rudolf Steiner’s Anthroposophy, significantly affected the further development of his aesthetic. [17] Blavatsky believed that it was possible to attain a more profound knowledge of nature than that provided by empirical means, and much of Mondrian’s work for the rest of his life was inspired by his search for that spiritual knowledge. In 1918, he wrote “I got everything from the Secret Doctrine”, referring to a book written by Blavatsky. In 1921, in a letter to Steiner, Mondrian argued that his neoplasticism was “the art of the foreseeable future for all true Anthroposophists and Theosophists”. He remained a committed Theosophist in subsequent years, although he also believed that his own artistic current, neoplasticism, would eventually become part of a larger, ecumenical spirituality. [18]
Piet Mondrian died of pneumonia on 1 February 1944 and was interred at the Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York. [34]

Mondrian what art movement
In 1926, Katherine Dreier, co-founder of New York City’s Society of Independent Artists (along with Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray), visited Piet Mondrian’s studio in Paris and acquired one of his diamond compositions, Painting I. This was then shown during an exhibition organized by the Society of Independent Artists in the Brooklyn Museum – the first major exhibition of modern art in America since the Armory Show. Dreier stated in the catalog that “Holland has produced three great painters who, though a logical expression of their own country, rose above it through the vigor of their personality – the first was Rembrandt, the second was Van Gogh, and the third is Mondrian.”
Piet Mondrian was born in the Netherlands, and received his formal training there; he attended the Rijksadame van Beeldende in Amsterdam. Mondrian grew up during a time of lively developments in art. In the year in which he was born, in France, Claude Monet painted Impression, Sunrise, which initiated some of the greatest repercussions the art world had seen since the Renaissance. When Mondrian was 12 years old, Georges Seurat began painting in dots of pure color, rather than blending colours on his palette. Six years later, Mondrian’s fellow countryman, Vincent van Gogh, shot himself in a cornfield, and 12 years after that Pablo Picasso painted Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, a work that profoundly affected painting and the way in which artists perceived themselves.

Mondrian what art movement
Prior to the start of World War II, Mondrian moved to London for two years before settling in New York City in 1940. While in London in 1938, Mondrian met and became friends with Peggy Guggenheim, an amity that led to Guggenheim’s staunch support of the Dutch expatriate, both within London and later in New York where she exhibited Mondrian’s works at her Art of This Century Gallery. Mondrian was introduced to the burgeoning New York avant-garde art scene and joined the American Abstract Artists – additionally legitimizing the new group’s role in modern art through his mentorship in European abstraction.
Mondrian termed the resulting artistic style Neo-Plasticism, or the new plastic art. For Mondrian, “plastic” merely referred to a novel way of representing reality, found upon the surface of the painting itself. Dedicated to the “absolute devaluation of tradition” the artists of De Stijl emphasized “the need for abstraction and simplification” and limited the elements in their paintings to straight horizontal and vertical lines, right angles, the three primary colors (red, yellow, blue) and the three achromatic colors (grey, white, and black). The De Stijl movement proved to have a major international influence on architecture, art, typography, and interior design throughout the 20 th century.

References:

http://www.britannica.com/biography/Piet-Mondrian
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piet_Mondrian
http://www.piet-mondrian.org/
http://m.theartstory.org/artist/mondrian-piet/life-and-legacy/
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountains_and_Sea

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how did fransico goya use caricute

how did fransico goya use caricute

My question only shows a picture, so I don’t know much; How did Francisco Goya use caricature to depict the figures in ‘Contemptuous of the Insults’? A) The facial features of the Frenchmen are exaggerated to show their confusion
1) How did francisco goya caricature to depict the figures in contemptuous of the insults? :The facial features of the frenchmen are exaggerated to show their confusion :The frenchman’s hats are comically large to show their self

How did fransico goya use caricute
In 1780 Goya was elected a member of the Royal Academy of San Fernando, Madrid, his admission piece being a Christ on the Cross, a conventional composition in the manner of Mengs but painted in the naturalistic style of Velázquez’s Christ on the Cross, which he doubtless knew. In 1785 he was appointed deputy director of painting at the Academy and in the following year painter to the king, Charles III. To this decade belong his earliest known portraits of court officials and members of the aristocracy, whom he represented in conventional 18th-century poses. The stiff elegance of the figures in full-length portraits of society ladies, such as The Marquesa de Pontejos, and the fluent painting of their elaborate costumes also relates them to Velázquez’s court portraits, and his representation of Charles III as Huntsman is based directly on Velázquez’s royal huntsmen.
Francisco Goya was one of the greatest painters and printmakers of the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe. He is regarded as one of the latest of the Old Masters and one of the earliest of the modern artists. His works reflected contemporary upheavals and influenced important later artists.

How did fransico goya use caricute
Corinthian hope this was helpful
Explanation: Medium is the materials used by an artist.

How did fransico goya use caricute
Explanation: (painting) Pond in a Garden, Egypt circa 1350 BC
it is vibrato, hope that helped you

How did fransico goya use caricute
1) D. The frenchmen are comically short to show their inferiority
The answer to the following questions are as follows:

References:

http://www.britannica.com/biography/Francisco-Goya
http://smart-answers.com/arts/question2597782
http://e-eduanswers.com/arts/question2597782
http://brainly.com/question/2597781
http://www.austria.info/en/things-to-do/cities-and-culture/famous-austrians/klimt

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