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the portuguese braque where is the human

the portuguese braque where is the human

The portuguese braque where is the human

Mandora (1909)
Tate Collection, London.
By Georges Braque.

Note: despite its monochrome palette and emotional neutrality, analytic Cubist painting could swing from melancholy (Picasso’s Seated Nude (1909-10) Tate Gallery) to sensuousness (Girl with a Mandolin (1910) private collection).

The portuguese braque where is the human
Braque’s paintings of 1908–1913 began to reflect his new interest in geometry and simultaneous perspective. He conducted an intense study of the effects of light and perspective and the technical means that painters use to represent these effects, appearing to question the most standard of artistic conventions. In his village scenes, for example, Braque frequently reduced an architectural structure to a geometric form approximating a cube, yet rendered its shading so that it looked both flat and three-dimensional by fragmenting the image. He showed this in the oil painting “House at L’estaque”. In this way, Braque called attention to the very nature of visual illusion and artistic representation.
In May 1907, he successfully exhibited works in the Fauve style in the Salon des Indépendants. The same year, Braque’s style began a slow evolution as he came under the strong influence of Paul Cézanne, who died in 1906, and whose works were exhibited in Paris for the first time in a large-scale, museum-like retrospective in September 1907. The 1907 Cézanne retrospective at the Salon d’Automne greatly impacted the direction that the avant-garde in Paris took, leading to the advent of Cubism.

The portuguese braque where is the human
BEST ABSTRACT ART
For a guide to the best examples
of abstraction, see:
Abstract Paintings: Top 100.
For a list of the most influential
styles/periods, see:
Abstract Art Movements.

WORLDS TOP ARTISTS
For top creative practitioners, see:
Best Artists of All Time.

The painting is one of the earliest cubist paintings. While it is frequently mentioned in monographs, textbooks and articles on the artist as well as Cubism, this painting has never been a source of serious controversy. Most of his paintings consist of still lives which are remarkable for their low-key colour harmonies, robust construction, and serene, meditative quality. Cubism is the technique that was used in the creation of the Portuguese painting. Georges Braque introduced this technique of painting in 1911. The painting features stencilled letters BAL and numerals under them. The painter first introduced the still life technique in 1910 before introducing the Cubism style.
While working on this painting, Georges Braque combined the two techniques to come up with the Portuguese. The stencilled numbers and letters in the art are the assertions of realistic intentions of the Cubism technique. In the painting, the stencilled or written letters across the surface represent the most conclusive ways of emphasizing the picture’s two-dimensional character and they also help stress the quality of the artwork. The Portuguese painting marks an interesting stage and point in the development of Georges’ arts. At the top right-hand corner of the painting, there are D BAL letters and numerals under them. Although Georges had included various numbers as well as letters into the painting, they were the representational elements of the art.

Pablo Picasso was born in 1881 in Spain. In 1900, he moved to France, where he began his career as a painter. He was a painter, printmaker, and sculptor. Picasso is well known for his introduction and development of Cubism along with Georges Braque. He is also well known for his modern approach to painting. (“Pablo Picasso and His Paintings.”) Picasso also invented the style of collage and contributed to the art movements of Symbolism and Surrealism. Picasso first emerged as a Symbolist, which can…
Pablo Picasso was of Spanish origin born in the city of Malaga. He was born on the 25th of October 1881. Pablo was the son of Don Jose Ruiz and Maria Picasso Lopez. He was a remarkable artist in the field of painting. He was also a sculptor, ceramicist, stage designer, and a poet. Picasso was a prominent figure, especially in the 20th century, because there were many art movements during that time. He had a great impact on the world of art which made him gain many fans and critics alike. He was the…

Resources:

http://www.georgesbraque.org/georges-braque-biography.jsp
http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/famous-artists/braque-georges.htm
http://www.georgesbraque.net/portuguese/
http://www.cram.com/essay/Picasso-Pablo-Picasso-And-Georges-Braque/F3WXDM9UR445
http://www.georgesbraque.org/the-portuguese.jsp

which of these artistic works did leonardo da vinci contribute to the renaissance?

which of these artistic works did leonardo da vinci contribute to the renaissance?

Several themes could be said to unite da Vinci’s eclectic interests. Most notably, he believed that sight was mankind’s most important sense and that “saper vedere”(“knowing how to see”) was crucial to living all aspects of life fully. He saw science and art as complementary rather than distinct disciplines, and thought that ideas formulated in one realm could—and should—inform the other.
The notebooks—often referred to as da Vinci’s manuscripts and “codices”—are housed today in museum collections after having been scattered after his death. The Codex Atlanticus, for instance, includes a plan for a 65-foot mechanical bat, essentially a flying machine based on the physiology of the bat and on the principles of aeronautics and physics. Other notebooks contained da Vinci’s anatomical studies of the human skeleton, muscles, brain, and digestive and reproductive systems, which brought new understanding of the human body to a wider audience. However, because they weren’t published in the 1500s, da Vinci’s notebooks had little influence on scientific advancement in the Renaissance period.

Which of these artistic works did leonardo da vinci contribute to the renaissance?
The letter worked, and Ludovico brought da Vinci to Milan for a tenure that would last 17 years. During his time in Milan, da Vinci was commissioned to work on numerous artistic projects as well, including “The Last Supper.”
Ironically, Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, who led the French forces that conquered Ludovico in 1499, followed in his foe’s footsteps and commissioned da Vinci to sculpt a grand equestrian statue, one that could be mounted on his tomb. After years of work and numerous sketches by da Vinci, Trivulzio decided to scale back the size of the statue, which was ultimately never finished.

Which of these artistic works did leonardo da vinci contribute to the renaissance?
Based on stylistic evidence, many scholars consider the painting The Virgin of the Rocks in the Louvre the first of two paintings that Leonardo made of an apocryphal legend in which the Holy Family meets Saint John the Baptist as they flee to Egypt from Herod’s Massacre of the Innocents. Leonardo was involved in years of litigation with the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception, which commissioned the work, and the dispute eventually led Leonardo to paint another version of the subject about 1508, which is now housed in the National Gallery of London.
One of the most famous paintings in the world, the Last Supper was commissioned by Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan and Leonardo’s patron during his first stay in that city, for the Dominican monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie. Depicting a sequential narrative, Leonardo illustrates several closely connected moments in the Gospels, including Matthew 26:21–28, in which Jesus declares that one of the Apostles will betray him and then institutes the Eucharist. Leonardo, who was intrigued by the manner in which a man’s character can reveal itself in posture, expression, and gesture, depicted each disciple’s unique reaction to the declaration. The Apostles’ postures rise, fall, extend, and intertwine as they appear to whisper, yell, grieve, and debate around Jesus, who sits serenely in the center. Because of Leonardo’s experimental painting technique, in which he used tempera or oil paint on two layers of preparatory ground, the work began to disintegrate soon after he finished it. Viewers, however, can still recognize it as a complex study of varied human emotion, revealed in a deceptively simple composition.

Which of these artistic works did leonardo da vinci contribute to the renaissance?
Leonardo da Vinci’s total output in painting is really rather small; there are less than 20 surviving paintings that can be definitely attributed to him, and several of them are unfinished. Two of his most important works—the Battle of Anghiari and the Leda, neither of them completed—have survived only in copies.
Leonardo da Vinci was an artist and engineer who is best known for his paintings, notably the Mona Lisa (c. 1503–19) and the Last Supper (1495–98). His drawing of the Vitruvian Man (c. 1490) has also become a cultural icon. Leonardo is sometimes credited as the inventor of the tank, helicopter, parachute, and flying machine, among other vehicles and devices, but later scholarship has disputed such claims. Nonetheless, Leonardo’s notebooks reveal a sharp intellect, and his contributions to art, including methods of representing space, three-dimensional objects, and the human figure, cannot be overstated.

Which of these artistic works did leonardo da vinci contribute to the renaissance?
During the Italian High Renaissance, the spirit of Humanism abounded, in which artists were deeply entrenched in a study of the humanities to consistently better themselves as people of the world. A person immersed in the comprehension and accomplishment of such varied interests would become later termed a “Renaissance man.” Leonardo da Vinci was the first prime exemplar of this term. Although his exhaustive personal interests led to his mastery of multiple fields, he is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time. His iconic works continue to be studied and revered today.
Leonardo’s genius in this work was in capturing a complicated emotionality through a look and a sideways gesture unconventional for portraiture. His study of the human body and its movement allowed for this precise capture of expression that is layered with subtle undertones that intrigue the viewer and invite them into the intimate world of his subject. Its lifelike immediacy captivated audiences. As art critic Sam Leith put it, “Give the painting a really good, close look and you’ll see she really does have the very breath of life in her. just distracted by a noise, caught in a living moment. ”

Resources:

http://www.biography.com/artist/leonardo-da-vinci
http://www.britannica.com/list/10-famous-artworks-by-leonardo-da-vinci
http://www.britannica.com/biography/Leonardo-da-Vinci
http://m.theartstory.org/artist/da-vinci-leonardo/
http://www.biography.com/artist/leonardo-da-vinci

kandinsky composition 4

kandinsky composition 4

Kandinsky composition 4
The contrast of diffuse and contour forms is striking,

Composition X by Vasily Kandinsky The key characteristic of this composition, obviously, is the immobile black ocean, against which background colors and forms are isolated. Kandinsky always expressed great aversion to black, and it is.

Sharp lines of varying thickness contrast with the softer colours painted, while two vertical lines seem to divide the composition. The viewer is immediately drawn to the area coloured blue, in a background that is largely coloured in light pastels. Colours merge together, and lines and shapes combine, hinting at peace and salvation to follow.
From 1906 to 1908 Kandinsky spent much of time travelling across Europe, finally settling in the small Bavarian town of Murnau. Wassily Kandinsky became famous for his painting, Der Blaue Reiter or Blue Rider (1903), which was used to describe his transitional Blue Rider Period, the early phase in his development as a painter. During this period, 1911 to1914, he further explored and refined the use of colour and shape to with emotion that would typify his later works. During this time he helped to establish the Munich New Artists’ Association, a home for innovative and experimental artists whose works were too radical for the establishment.

2. Contrasts
between mass and line
between precision and blur
between line interlacing and color interlacing, and
the main contrast between sharp abrupt movement (battle) and light cold delicate colors
1. Mass (Weights)
Colors
in the middle at the bottom – blue (providing cold tone to the whole)
on the right at the top – separated blue, red and yellow
on the left at the top – black interlacing lines of horses
on the right at the bottom – extended lines of lying figures

Kandinsky composition 4
Oil on canvas – Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
Kandinsky’s vibrant palette and expressive brushwork provide the viewer with a sense of hope rather than despair. Further, the brilliant colors and dark outlines recall his love of the Russian folk art. These influences would remain part of Kandinsky’s style throughout the rest of his career, with bright colors dominating his representational and non-objective canvases. From this figurative and highly symbolic work, Kandinsky progressed further towards pure abstraction. The forms are already schematized from their observable appearance in the surrounding world in this canvas, and his abstraction only progressed as Kandinsky refined his theories about art.

Kandinsky composition 4
We realize that these things, though interesting and important, are not the main things of the moment, but that the meaning and idea is what concerns us. We should have the same feeling when confronted by a work of art. When this becomes general the artists will be able to dispense with natural form and colour and speak in purely artistic language.

In manipulation of form music can achieve results, which are beyond the reach of painting. On the other hand, painting is ahead of music in several particulars. Music, for example, has at its disposal duration of time; while painting can present to the spectator the whole current of its message at one moment. Music, which is outwardly unfettered by nature, needs no definite form for its expression. Painting today is almost exclusively concerned with the reproduction of natural forms and phenomena. Her business is now to test her strength and methods, to know herself as music has done for a long time and then to use her powers to a truly artistic end.

Resources:

http://www.kandinskypaintings.org/composition-iv/
http://www.wassilykandinsky.net/work-114.php
http://m.theartstory.org/artist/kandinsky-wassily/artworks/
http://www.theculturium.com/wassily-kandinsky-concerning-the-spiritual-in-art/
http://m.theartstory.org/artist/kandinsky-wassily/artworks/

norman rockwell the runaway

norman rockwell the runaway

“I was told to be in my uniform at the Howard Johnson’s [restaurant] in Pittsfield,” recalls Clemens, now 81 and retired in Clifton Park, New York. Inside, he was introduced to 8-year-old Eddie Locke, whose father and brother Clemens already knew. Rockwell had recruited the boy from the local elementary school to play a plucky young vagabond.
To underscore the lad’s meager possessions, Rockwell placed a handkerchief on a stick beneath the stool. For about an hour, Clemens and Locke sat as still as they could while the maestro adjusted their postures (“Keep one arm extended”) and expressions (“Look this way and that”). “I was a little kid, but he made it easy on me,” says Locke, 59, a landscaper and maintenance worker in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Clarence Barrett, a friend of Rockwell’s who worked at a local garage, manned the counter.

The setting is pristine; this is no ordinary diner. It’s the Platonic ideal of a diner, where the floor is immaculate, the counter gleams, and even the waiter’s clothing and towel are unsullied.
Discover the symbolism in Norman Rockwell’s famous painting, The Runaway.

Norman rockwell the runaway
A photograph used in painting this illustration is reproduced in Norman Rockwell: Behind the Camera by Ron Schick on page 189, as well as the painting itself appearing on page 188.
Right from the beginning, I always strived to capture everything I saw as completely as possible.

Note to readers: if you purchase something through one of our affiliate links we may earn a commission.
According to state police records, Clemens and 8-year-old Ed Locke posed for Rockwell at the Howard Johnson’s Restaurant on Pittsfield – Lennox Road in Pittsfield.

Norman rockwell the runaway
The guy behind the counter is obviously a seedy character. Consider the greasy hair, cigarette hanging out of the corner of his mouth. He looks like he’s been up all night.
The cop, by contrast, is immaculate. His boots are polished, he’s clean shaven, sporting a fresh close-cropped haircut, and his expression is not as easy (or insidious) as the other guy’s smile.

Resources:

http://www.saturdayeveningpost.com/2014/06/the-rockwell-files-protect-and-serve/
http://www.best-norman-rockwell-art.com/1958-the-runaway.html
http://www.masslive.com/news/2012/05/retired_state_trooper_richard.html
http://likebulb.blogspot.com/2018/07/the-runaway-by-norman-rockwell.html?m=1
http://www.saturdayeveningpost.com/2014/06/the-rockwell-files-protect-and-serve/

dr gradus ad parnassum

dr gradus ad parnassum

Dr gradus ad parnassum
Henle Music Folios
Debussy – The Ultimate Piano Collection

Dr gradus ad parnassum
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Dr gradus ad parnassum
HN 382 · ISMN 979-0-2018-0382-1
Pages 34 (IV+30), Size 23,5 x 31,0 cm

Dr gradus ad parnassum
Note: This piece is formatted for A4 paper size; use the settings in your printer dialog box to get the best fit for your paper size.
Tony Bremner has arranged Debussy’s Children’s Corner – I. “Gradus ad Parnassum” for four pedal harps. A popular and important addition to the harp ensemble repertoire. Scroll down for notes from the arranger.

Dr gradus ad parnassum
Debussy, C.
DEBUSSY, Claude (1862-1918)

Resources:

http://www.jwpepper.com/Doctor-Gradus-Ad-Parnassum/10083713.item
http://www.henle.de/en/detail/?Title=Children%27s+Corner%2C+Little+Suite+for+Piano_382
http://harpcolumn.com/music/all-music/artists/tony-bremner/childrens-corner-i-doctor-gradus-ad-parnassum/
http://www.abebooks.co.uk/book-search/title/doctor-gradus-ad-parnassum/author/debussy/
http://www.abebooks.co.uk/book-search/title/gradus-ad-parnassum/author/fux/

Willi Baumeister

“From 1905 to 1907 Willi Baumeister completed a training in painting and decorating, which was likely the source of his lifelong sense of a fitting use of materials, and his enjoyment of experiment. Admitted in 1906 to the drawing class at the Akademie der bilden den Kunste, Stuttgart, he became a student in Adolf H?1zel’s composition class there in 1910. “In 1919-1920,” Baumeister noted, “I made paintings conceived for an architecture that did not yet exist at the time. In contrast to Archipenko, I strove not for an isolated, colored relief but began with a component of architecture, the wall. The result was paintings with actual, raised surfaces, which, as it were, hesitatingly grew out of the wall, without controverting its laws… I called these pictures ‘wall paintings,’ to emphasize the contrast with ‘easel paintings’.” Many of Baumeister’s wall paintings contain rough-textured passages obtained by adding sand to the paint, a technique he would continue to use a11 the way down to the late Monturi pictures. Color and form were treated in accordance with the law of perfect harmony and clarity, for Baumeister’s intent was to expunge all subjectivity from his art. In the early 1930s he recurred to archaic configurations, which lent his style reminiscences of neolithic cave painting.
“Monturi Discus I A, from the Monturi sequence, is a work from the artist’s final years. Focus of the composition is the circular, white form in the center – the discus of the title – surrounded and intersected by multicolored arabesques, which seems to converge on an expansive, rock-like shape. According to Baumeister’s statements, images of this kind address the fundamental issues of life, through symbols of the female principle and the forces at work in nature.”

Willi Baumeister’s Work

Baumeister took part in his first exhibition in 1910, showing figurative works inspired by impressionism. His chief interest was even at this time already in cubism and Paul C?zanne, whose work remained important to him throughout his life. These influences of impressionism and cubism that shaped Baumeister’s early paintings played an essential role in his work until the end of the 1920s. On the one hand, his representational painting was increasingly reduced (abstracting and geometric) as it gained form and lost depth. Parallel to the paintings of his friend Oskar Schlemmer, Baumeister’s independent exploration of form and color emerged. Already around 1919, his teacher Adolf H?lzel wrote to him: “Out of all of us, you will be the one who will achieve the most.” Also worth noticing is that the idiosyncratic German path into modernism, expressionism, barely resonates at all in Baumeister’s work, even though he had met, for instance, Franz Marc earlier on, and was certainly acquainted with the works of the Br?cke (Bridge) artists and those of the Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider).

After his return from the First World War, Baumeister rigorously developed his work further. Although one still finds figurative elements in his paintings, the forms grew increasingly geometric and took on a dynamic of their own, and Baumeister broke the traditional connection between form and color. Various work groups emerged at this time, including the relief-like wall pictures, and paintings with sports theme (as a symbol for modernity). In his painting, the grappling with shapes and material of the painting as well as the relationship between reality and representation became visible. Parallel to this development, nonrepresentational painting began to gain a foothold in works that centered on geometric shapes and their relationships to one another in the picture (e.g. Planar Relation of 1920). Baumeister’s lively exchange with other German and foreign artists must also be seen as vitally important in the consequent development of his work. Indeed, as it was for many of his fellow artists, posing such questions was part of the agenda of the modern age (for example, El Lissitzky, Kazimir Malevich, Wassily Kandinsky, Fernand L?ger, Am?d?e Ozenfant, Le Corbusier, Paul Klee).

Towards the end of the 1920s, the shapes in Baumeister’s pictures grew softer. His paintings moved away from being oriented by the elementary shapes of the circle, triangle, and square towards organic forms. Although this development could also be observed concurrently in the work of other artists of his time, in Baumeister’s case, it was tied to his fascination for the prehistoric and archaic paintings. Baumeister intensely explored artifacts of early paintings and integrated this pictorial experience into his own painting. He identified the symbols, signs, and figures of cave painting as components of a valid archaic pictorial language that he used in his works. These included his increasing number of paintings in “oil on sand on canvas” that, in their materials, also approached the cave painting that Baumeister so admired (beg. ca. 1933). He himself collected examples of prehistoric findings, small sculptures, and tools, and occupied himself with cliff drawings that had been discovered in Rhodesia. This experience was undoubtedly important for Baumeister’s artistic disposition since he, evidently inspired by this rich store of prehistoric works, ultimately used extraordinarily reduced organic shapes for his “ideograms” (beg. ca. 1937). In these works he used a unique world of signs, which he saw as symbols for the laws of nature, their evolution, and human existence.

Baumeister’s artistic development was not interrupted when he lost his professorship at the St?del in Frankfurt in 1933. He continued to paint despite political persecution and economic difficulties. His work and its development are correspondingly diverse, even for the period after 1941, when he banned from exhibiting. He was the employed by the Dr. Kurt Herberts & Co. varnish factory in Wuppertal to research antique and modern painting techniques. This protected him politically and also gave him the opportunity to explore the fundamentals of painting. In this way he furthered his knowledge on prehistoric cave painting techniques. At the same time, he looked into Goethe’s theory of plant morphology. Out of this study this “eidos pictures” (eidos: idea) emerged: paintings that, unlike Baumeister’s ideograms, are rich in their variety and coloration. Moreover, these forms are organic, but seem rather than being symbols or signs, are images of simple plantlike and animal life forms. The pictures bear titles such as Rock Garden, Eidos, or Primordial Vegetable.

Selected Monographs:

– Will Grohmann, Willi Baumeister – Leben und Werk, Cologne 1963.
– Peter Beye, Baumeister, Felicitas: Willi Baumeister. Werkkatalog der Gem?lde. 2 Volumes. Ostfildern, 2002.
– Gerd Presler, Baumeister, Felicitas: Willi Baumeister – Werkverzeichnis der Skizzenb?cher (dt./engl.). Schriften des Archiv Baumeister im Kunstmuseum Stuttgart, Band 2. Berlin und M?nchen: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2010.

Works by the artist also featured in recent years in the two landmark exhibitions in the UK of German art:
German Art in the 20th Century: Painting and Sculpture 1905-1985 (Royal Academy, London, 1985, catalogue edited by Christos M. Joachimides, Norman Rosenthal and Wieland Schmied.
The Romantic Spirit in German Art: 1790-1990 Hayward Gallery, London, 1994, catalogue by Keith Hartley, Henry Meyric Hughes, Peter-Klaus Schuster and others.

the fall of icarus painting

the fall of icarus painting

Fall of Icarus by Bruegel was a painting which was subjected to intensive scrutiny by art academics who wanted to prove who was the original creator of this painting. The work was carried out in 1996 and conclusions were drawn that it was unlikely to have been from Pieter Bruegel’s own hand though with no other artist being linked to it, Fall of Icarus will probably still remain within his portfolio for years to come.
Landscape with the Fall of Icarus has a slightly inaccurate balance between the character in the foreground and the background ships with the sizes not entirely what you would expect from such a skilled artist. Many believe however that this was a deliberate ploy by the artist to strengthen the power of the focal points of the work, and artistic license is an accepted element to many successful oil paintings right across art history.

The fall of icarus painting
a farmer was ploughing
his field
the whole pageantry
All this is ‘unsignificant’.

John Sutherland describes the painting as
Landscape with the Fall of Icarus is described in W H Auden’s famous poem Musée des Beaux-Arts , named after the museum in Brussels which holds the painting.

The fall of icarus painting
The ploughman, shepherd and angler are mentioned in Ovid’s account of the legend; they are: “astonished and think to see gods approaching them through the aether”, which is not entirely the impression given in the painting. The shepherd gazing into the air, away from the ship, may be explained by another version of the composition (see below); in the original work there was probably also a figure of Daedalus in the sky to the left, at which he stares. There is also a Flemish proverb (of the sort imaged in other works by Bruegel): “And the farmer continued to plough. ” (En de boer . hij ploegde voort”) pointing out the ignorance of people to fellow men’s suffering. The painting may, as Auden’s poem suggests, depict humankind’s indifference to suffering by highlighting the ordinary events which continue to occur, despite the unobserved death of Icarus.
Largely derived from Ovid, the painting is described in W. H. Auden’s famous poem “Musée des Beaux-Arts”, named after the museum in Brussels which holds the painting, and became the subject of a poem of the same name by William Carlos Williams, as well as “Lines on Bruegel’s ‘Icarus'” by Michael Hamburger.

The fall of icarus painting

About suffering, they were never wrong,
The old Masters: how well they understood
Its human position: how it takes place
While someone else is eating or opening a window or just walking dully along…

In Brueghel’s Icarus, for instance: how everything turns away
Quite leisurely from the disaster; the ploughman may
Have heard the splash, the forsaken cry,
But for him it was not an important failure…

Resources:

http://ancientrecipes.wordpress.com/2018/02/28/the-fall-of-icarus-strike-diary-5/
http://www.bl.uk/collection-items/landscape-with-the-fall-of-icarus
http://www.wikiart.org/en/pieter-bruegel-the-elder/landscape-with-the-fall-of-icarus-1560
http://www.wbur.org/artery/2018/12/05/pieter-bruegel-fall-of-icarus
http://www.bl.uk/collection-items/landscape-with-the-fall-of-icarus

Kandinsky and Music

“The term “Composition” can imply a metaphor with music. Kandinsky was fascinated by music’s emotional power. Because music expresses itself through sound and time, it allows the listener a freedom of imagination, interpretation, and emotional response that is not based on the literal or the descriptive, but rather on the abstract quality that painting, still dependent on representing the visible world, could not provide.
“Kandinsky’s special understanding of the affinities between painting and music and his belief in the Gesamtkunstwerk, or the total work of art, came forth in his text “On Stage Composition,” his play “Yellow Sound,” and his portfolio of prose poems and prints Klange (Sounds, 1913). Music can respond and appeal directly to the artist’s “internal element” and express spiritual values, thus for Kandinsky it is a more advanced art. In his writings Kandinsky emphasizes this superiority in advancing toward what he calls the epoch of the great spiritual.

“Wagner’s Lohengrin, which had stirred Kandinsky to devote his life to art, had convinced him of the emotional powers of music. The performance conjured for him visions of a certain time in Moscow that he associated with specific colors and emotions. It inspired in him a sense of a fairy-tale hour of Moscow, which always remained the beloved city of his childhood. His recollection of the Wagner performance attests to how it had retrieved a vivid and complex network of emotions and memories from his past: “The violins, the deep tones of the basses, and especially the wind instruments at that time embodied for me all the power of that pre-nocturnal hour. I saw all my colors in my mind; they stood before my eyes. Wild, almost crazy lines were sketched in front of me. I did not dare use the expression that Wagnet had painted ‘my hour’ musically.”

“It was at this special moment that Kandinsky realized the tremendous power that art could exert over the spectator and that painting could develop powers equivalent to those of music. He felt special attraction to Wagner, whose music was greatly admired by the Symbolists for its idea of Gesamtkunstwerk that embraced word, music, and the visual arts and was best embodied in Wagner’s The Ring of the Nibelung, with its climax of global cataclysm. One can also presume that Kandinsky, philosophically a child of the German Romantic tradition, was strongly attracted to Wagner’s use of medieval Germanic myths and legends, including those of the world’s creation and destruction, as symbols that allowed for the translation of his philosophical attitudes toward the world view, religion, and love. For instance, Kandinsky was enthralled by Tristan and Isolde as an expression of undying love and spiritual transformation. But in Wagner there is also an affinity with the philosophy of Schopenhauer, who considered music to be of central importance in man’s emotional life.

“Among his musical contemporaries, Kandinsky admired the work of Aleksander Scriabin, whose innovations he found compatible with his own objectives in painting. What especially intrigued Kandinsky were Scriabin’s researches toward establishing a table of equivalencies between tones in color and music, a theory that Scriabin effectively applied in his orchestral work Prometheus: A Poem of Fire (1908). These tonal theories parallel Kandinsky’s desire to find equivalencies between colors and feelings in painting: indeed, one of the illustrations included in the essay on Scriabin published in the Blaue Reiter Almanac was a color reproduction of Composition IV.

“Kandinsky’s conviction that music is a superior art to painting due to its inherent abstract language came out forcefully in the artist’s admiration for the music of the Viennese composer Arnold Sch?nberg, with whom he initiated a longstanding friendship and correspondence and whose Theory of Harmony (1911) coincided with Kandinsky’s On the Spiritual in Art. Kandinsky’s complex relationship to Sch?nberg’s music is central to his concept of Composition, since Sch?nberg’s most important contribution to the development of music, after all, occurred in the area of composition.

“Sch?nberg’s innovations, such as discarding chromaticism and abandoning tonal and harmonic conventions, unleashed a new future for musical explorations and formed an important turning point for compositional practice. In particular, two of the composer’s innovations radically opened musical compositional structures. Beginning with his First String Quartet in 1905, Sch?nberg introduced a chromatic structure that he defined as a “developing variation,” in which there was a continual evolution and transformation of the thematic substance of the musical piece, rejecting thematic repetition. This inspired the constant unfolding of an unbroken musical argument without recourse to the svmmetrical balances of equal phrases or sections and their corresponding thematic content. As a result of this practice, Sch?nberg achieved a musical continuum that was richly structured, densely polyphonic, and in which all parts were equally developmental.

“These new compositional structures led him toward free chromaticism, which emphasized nonharmonic tones and “emancipation of dissonance” (i.e., unresolved dissonance), one of the principal features of atonal music. Having such constant transformations, rather than the repetition of melodic pattern, endowed the work with a totally unconventional psychological depth, evocative power, and emotional strength. Sch?nberg’s innovations, which permitted any pitch configuration, ruptured traditional conventions of musical composition.

Wassily Kandinsky: the painter of sound and vision

Playing with the boundaries between the visual and the musical is an old game. The Pythagoreans were probably the first westerners at it when they declared: “The eyes are made for astronomy, the ears for harmony, and these are sister sciences.” This relatively simple proposition was taken up by medieval and later sages, who developed it into a vast intellectual undergrowth of arcane and convoluted theories of how music and the mathematical proportions of creation were one and the same.
The Romantics had their own, similar, thoughts: Goethe declared that architecture was “frozen music”, and the mid-Victorian ?ber-aesthete Walter Pater breathlessly announced that “all art aspires towards the condition of music”. By the late 19th and early 20th century, however, blurring the edges between music and the other arts had become a widespread obsession. The idea fitted with the spirit of an age when artists and commentators from Russia to America were embracing pseudo-religions, dabbling in pseudo-sciences of dreams and symbols, and gabbling with excitement about the prospects for a new synthetic experience of art where the material distinctions between word, image and sound would melt away into a kind of spiritual – though it often seems more sexual – ecstasy that would shake the body and the world. Poems and paintings became music, and music became paintings and poems.
This was when the gaudy flowers of Wassily Kandinsky’s paintings burst from their buds. Music – and the idea of music – appears everywhere in Kandinsky’s work. Take his generic titles: Compositions, Improvisations, and Impressions. His mighty 10 compositions were created over more than three decades from Composition l in 1907 to Composition X in 1939. The first three were destroyed in the second world war but enough survives in sketches and photographs to give an impression of what they were about and how they fitted into a sequence of paintings that aspires to be, in musical terms, a cycle of “symphonies”. The Improvisations are, on the whole, less monumental, more dramatic. One writer compared them to “concertos”. Kandinsky himself called them “suddenly created expressions of processes with an inner character”. And as for the Impressions, although this may seem less of an obviously musical title, we know that several of them were specifically written in response to the experience of hearing particular pieces of music.
There are also one-off titles by Kandinsky with musical intentions. In Moscow in 1903 he published 122 primitive-looking woodcuts that he called Poems Without Words, clearly having in mind the old musical genre of “songs without words”. In 1913 he created a book of linked poems and woodcuts called Kl?nge – “Sounds”. During this same prewar period he wrote several play scripts – more like opera librettos or film scripts – to which he gave titles like The Yellow Sound, The Green Sound and Black and White. Though hardly stageable, these
pieces were intriguing experiments in the synthesising of drama, words, colour and music into a single seamless whole.
Also at this time Kandinsky wrote his famous theoretical work On the Spiritual in Art. This classic text of early modernism brims with the “spiritual” enthusiasms of the age. But it is also remarkably precise about what Kandinsky considers the practical stuff of his art, and especially about colour, ascribing particular emotional (“spiritual”) qualities to each shade, grouping them into families of like and unlike, and proposing complex ways in which contrasted colours could be balanced with one another. As is dazzlingly evident from the art he produced at this period, Kandinsky’s fundamental idea of a unifying colour-theory, however outr? or whimsical it might appear, played a big part in enabling his astonishing imaginative leap into abstraction.
To support his colour theories, Kandinsky appealed in his manifesto to the evidence of synaesthesia, the scientific name for the condition in which the senses are confused with one another (as when someone hears the ring of a doorbell as tasting of chicken or whatever). He wrote enthusiastically of how “a certain Dresden doctor tells how one of his patients, whom he describes as ‘spiritually, unusually highly developed’, invariably found that a certain sauce had a ‘blue’ taste”. This touching medical support for the idea that a spiritually superior person will naturally perceive the significance of the kinds of colour connections that he is talking about leads Kandinsky on to a grandiloquent cascade of musical metaphor: “Our hearing of colours is so precise … Colour is a means of exerting a direct influence upon the soul. Colour is the keyboard. The eye is the hammer. The soul is the piano with its many strings. The artist is the hand that purposely sets the soul vibrating by means of this or that key. Thus it is clear that the harmony of colours can only be based upon the principle of purposefully touching the human soul.”
The heart of Kandinsky’s connection to music, of course, is found not in his titles or theoretical self-justifications but in his works of art. And here it is clear that however arbitrary his scaffolding of theory, he had genuinely arrived at a way of playing on the canvas with the tensions and relationships between pure colours. In an eloquent essay in the catalogue to the Tate Modern’s forthcoming exhibition, Kandinsky: The Path to Abstraction 1908-1922, the German artist Bruno Haas speaks of the clarity of Kandinsky’s painterly “syntax” and describes how Kandinsky’s families of colours resonate with one another to produce visual “chords”. As if aware that we might not believe him, Haas suggests ways in which we can prove to ourselves the existence of these “chords” by taking a colour print of one of Kandinsky’s pictures and holding down our hands over this bit or that to see how the colours (and shapes) change in relation to one another. He quotes a vivid line from Kandinsky describing the experience of painting in this way and once again using a musical metaphor: “I had little thought for houses and trees, drawing coloured lines and blobs on the canvas with my palette knife, and making them sing just as powerfully as I knew how.”

In Kandinsky’s view

“In Kandinsky’s view, melodic compositions were revitalized by Paul C?zanne and later by the Swiss Symbolist Ferdinand Hodler. As an example of melodic composition, Kandinsky illustrated C?zanne’s Large Bathers within the text of On the Spiritual in Art, stating that the picture represents “an example of this clearly laid out, melodic composition with open rhythms.” Indeed, one observes a clear rhythm in the arrangement of trees and the figures gathered under the triangular canopy of rhythmically leaning trees. As in a musical composition, the rhythms add vitality to the pictorial composition, inviting the eye to travel from one form to the next according to a regularly determined motion.

“The section on rhythm in his conclusion to On the Spiritual in Art reveals much about Kandinsky’s philosophical approach, whereby every phenomenon in nature, not only in music but also in painting, has its own structural rhythm. He felt that numerous pictures, especially woodcuts and miniatures from earlier periods, represented excellent examples of “complex ‘rhythmic’ composition with a strong intimation of the symphonic principle. Among these types he included the work of old German masters, of the Persians and the Japanese, Russian icons, and particularly Russian folk prints. But he observed that in most of these early works the symphonic composition is very closely tied to the melodic one, where principally the objective element underlies the structure.

“For Kandinsky, if that objective element of a painting were taken away, the building blocks of the composition would reveal themselves to cause a feeling of repose and tranquil repetition, of well-balanced parts. A similar feeling is evoked by diverse modes of musical expression, for instance early choral music or the music of Mozart or Beethoven . However, when the objective element is in place, especially beginning with Composition IV, all of the juxtapositions, conflicts, and dissonances are arranged in a manner that parallels Sch?nberg’s own innovations.”

composition iv by wassily kandinsky

composition iv by wassily kandinsky

Composition iv by wassily kandinsky
where people decided to reproduce art as a picture of what was going on. Instead, this artistic
world, what he thought it was to him, himself. And in these paintings, he was able to convey to
the general public what he felt was right, what he felt was important.

Dusseldorf. Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen
3. Overlapping
of contours by colors.
Only all outlines of the castle are weakened by the sky flowing through its contour.

Composition iv by wassily kandinsky
Size: 54 (h) x 83 cm (w)
21 in (h) x 33 in (w)
This is an image of the famous artwork. We will hand paint a beautiful reproduction of this masterpiece in the size below.

Composition iv by wassily kandinsky
Oil on canvas – The State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
Oil on canvas – Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfallen, DГјsseldorf

Composition iv by wassily kandinsky
It was in France that the majority of Kandinsky oil paintings were completed but his art spans both the Expressionism and Post-Impressionism art movements
Kandinsky returned to Germany during 1920 to teach at the Bauhaus School of Art in Munich but when it was closed by the Nazi’s, he moved to France

Resources:

http://www.wassilykandinsky.net/work-114.php
http://www.artworkonly.com/russian-paintings/composition-iv-by-wassily-kandinsky-famous-russian-art-handmade-oil-painting-on-canvas
http://m.theartstory.org/artist/kandinsky-wassily/artworks/
http://www.reproduction-gallery.com/oil-painting/1408527313/composition-iv-1911-by-wassily-kandinsky/
http://www.paulklee.net/ad-parnassum.jsp

jasper johns flag

jasper johns flag

Jasper johns flag
“In the early 1950s, while working closely with Robert Rauschenberg in adjacent lofts in lower Manhattan, Johns resolved to be an artist. With this novel sense of determination, Johns did two things that would help establish his identity and significance as an artist. First, he systematically destroyed all existing work in his possession, vowing that henceforth his art would be free of perceptible debt to other artists. Secondly, he painted Flag, a curiously mature work inspired by a dream in which he saw himself painting an American flag. Moderate in scale it has none of the visionary qualities one might expect given its purported origins in the artist’s unconscious.
“A close look at Flag’s surface confirms that Johns shared his contemporaries’ interest in the material properties of paint. In most other respects, however, Flag stood apart from its context: in an era that prized abstraction, Johns chose recognizable, commonplace subject matter.”

Jasper johns flag
If Johns paints the word “red” on yellow, as he does in 1959’s False Start, does that make it red or yellow? It’s a conundrum that dates at least to Marcel Duchamp and his use of found objects and “readymades,” or even to Rene Magritte, whose The Treachery of Images has the phrase “this is not a pipe” written under what isn’t a pipe but an image of a pipe.
Artist Billy Al Bengston, one of L.A.’s original Ferus Gallery “Cool School” practitioners that included Ed Ruscha, John Altoon, Larry Bell and others, first saw Johns’s work at the Venice Biennale in 1958. “I saw Jasper Johns’ Flag and that was it. I didn’t see anything that looked like art in Venice after that,” he recalled to Observer. “It’s just that it was so blatantly in your face. They weren’t chicken shit.”

Gallery label from “Collection 1940s—1970s”, 2019

The forty-eight stars and red-and-white stripes depicted here picture an American flag from the year this work was made. Johns noted that using a recognizable image took care of a great deal for him because he didn’t have to design it. He made this work by combining panels, paint, and encaustic—a mixture of pigment and melted wax that captured the paint’s drips, smears, and brushstrokes. Beneath the flag’s familiar stripes, we can make out a collage of newspaper scraps whose dates locate this commonplace symbol within a particular moment.

Jasper johns flag
But if you listen carefully to what Johns says 2:20 into the video clip of the Sylvester interview something interesting happens. Johns breaks into nervous laughter as he offers this anecdote: “My Aunt Gladys, when she read the thing in the magazine, wrote me a letter saying she was so proud of me because she had worked so hard to instill some respect for the American flag in her students. and she was so glad (breaking into laughter) that the mark had been left (more laughter) on me.”
With that correction in place it’s time to talk about what is known about why Johns painted the flag and what he wanted it to stand for. That will take us into a situation where facts are sparse, meanings are murky and questions will multiply. A good place to start would seem to be considering what the artist himself has said about the origins and meanings of his flag. Then again, when David Sylvester interviewed Johns in 1965 the artist mainly offered up trivialities: the idea came to him in a dream, it was painted with encaustic since enamel didn’t dry quickly enough, etc. etc.

It’s an impressive work of art, one that draws you in and invites a further examination of every element.
The painting is in the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in NYC. © 2013 Jasper Johns / Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY

Resources:

http://observer.com/2018/02/the-broad-jasper-johns-show-revisits-the-shock-of-flag-paintings/
http://www.moma.org/collection/works/78805
http://m.huffpost.com/us/entry/us_59591fb3e4b0f078efd98adf
http://galleryintell.com/artex/flag-by-jasper-johns/
http://www.beermenus.com/beers/937-ballantine-xxx-ale