mark hardin md manta

mark hardin md manta

Through the years, Dr. Hardin has been honored with numerous awards and titles for his work. He was named one of America’s Top Doctors in 1999, one of the Best Doctors in Dallas in 2001 through 2009, and a Texas Super Doctor in 2004, 2005 and 2006.
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Mark hardin md manta
Raja Ampat Archipelago, West Papua, Indonesia.
A total of 165 individuals were recaptured at least once (28.1% of database). The maximum number of sightings for one individual was seven, with 13 individuals captured five or more times. Of these 13 individuals, a total of 60 out of 70 recaptures were at Magic Mountain and all recaptures were in the Misool region. The longest period between sighting events of the same individual was 4,156 days from 2004/05/19 to 2015/10/05 (mean time between recaptures was 285 days ± 32 SE). April showed the highest site recapture rate at Magic Mountain, with 23 individuals returning in at least two different years. Of these, seven were male and 16 were female, with 10 being seen in consecutive years.

Mark hardin md manta
On December 22nd 2015, a rare sighting of a
In situ southernmost record of Mobula birostris off Peruvian Central Coast. GoPro photograph taken at 16 m depth, manta ray swimming with its cephalic fins closed. a) Anterior left sideward view and, b) posterior left sideward view, ventral zone partially covered by eleven Remora sp.

Mark hardin md manta
The harpoon or untog used to catch manta rays in Dinagat (bottom) in comparison with the isi (top) from Jagna.
According to respondents from Bohol, the most recent targeted mobulid fishery opened in 1998 in a village off Dinagat Island in northern Mindanao but it only became fully active in 2002. This fishery was started by a Jagna fisher. Fishers in this village use smaller motorized outrigger boats about six meters long with 16hp engines. In 2010, there were four fishing boats in the village targeting mobulids. The harpoon used was a variation from the traditional harpoon fishers on the island had used in the past ( Fig 12 ). It was designed to specifically catch the type of manta rays that occurred in their area. According to fishers, the manta rays occur in seamounts between the islands of Homonhon, in eastern Samar and Dinagat Island. They congregate on the sandy bottom on the tops of seamounts and can be clearly seen from the surface. This allows the fishers to spot the rays easily, approach them with caution and drop a heavy harpoon on them. A crew of five to eight men on a boat set out at around 6 am. Often two boats cooperate and hunt together. They scout the area for any manta rays leaping on the surface of the water, or most often they will only set out after a report has been received the previous day from the scouting boat that rays are in the area. When they reach the seamount, a fisher will lie on the outrigger of the boat peering down into the water using goggles. Once a ray is spotted the boat approaches it slowly. While the men hold the harpoon steady, the harpooner aims the harpoon towards the target and signals the drop. The weight of the harpoon alone buries the tip in the ray’s back and the toggle secures it when the ray tries to swim away. The harpooner tries to aim at the animal’s mid-back and slightly to the side in order to kill it within seconds. Apparently if hit at the back of the head the ray dies too slowly while if hit at or near the base of the tail it will be difficult to subdue because it turns and swims upwards. This causes the rope to get tangled. It is not easy to secure a manta ray with just one hit. Quite often the fishers need to harpoon it 4 or 5 times before killing and securing it.

Four species of mobulids have been verified to be caught in the Bohol Sea: Manta birostris, Mobula japanica, Mobula thurstoni and Mobula tarapacana. A fifth species, targeted off Dinagat, is most likely the Manta alfredi. Although Mobula eregoodootenke and Mobula kuhlii were reported to be caught in Bohol [32], none were identified in this study.
Since 2010 there has been a renewed interest in protecting all species of sharks and rays in the country. Several House Bills were proposed in Congress, including House Bill 174, known as the “Sharks and Rays Conservation Act of 2010” and House Bill 5412 also known as the “Shark’s Fin Bill” filed in 2011. In 2012, two bills of similar content was also introduced, Senate Bill 2616 and House Bill No. 5880. At the time of writing, apart from readings in Congress, meetings and news media releases there has been no update on the status of all these proposed bills. To this day, there are no efforts in the local government level to regulate the mobulid fisheries. This is despite the recent clamor for protection of all elasmobranch species in the country.

References:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ddi.12962
http://mbr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41200-017-0130-1
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004919/
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161444
http://www.markhardin.net/

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