giorgio de chirico

giorgio de chirico

The paintings de Chirico produced between 1909 and 1919, his metaphysical period, are characterized by haunted, brooding moods evoked by their images. At the start of this period, his subjects were motionless cityscapes inspired by the bright daylight of Mediterranean cities, but gradually he turned his attention to studies of cluttered storerooms, sometimes inhabited by mannequin-like hybrid figures.
In 1982, Robert Hughes wrote that de Chirico

Giorgio de chirico
In 1915 de Chirico was conscripted into the Italian army and stationed at Ferrara, Italy. There, he was able to continue making art and practiced a modification of his earlier manner, marked by more compact groupings of incongruous objects. Diagnosed with a nervous condition, he was admitted into a military hospital, where he met Carlo Carrà in 1917; together the two artists developed the style they named Metaphysical painting. In de Chirico’s paintings of this period, such as the Grand Metaphysical Interior (1917) and The Seer (1915), the colours are brighter, and dressmakers’ mannequins, compasses, biscuits, and paintings on easels assume a mysterious significance within enigmatic landscapes or interiors.
Giorgio de Chirico, (born July 10, 1888, Vólos, Greece—died Nov. 19, 1978, Rome, Italy), Italian painter who, with Carlo Carrà and Giorgio Morandi, founded the style of Metaphysical painting.

Giorgio de chirico
De Chirico continued to be a prolific artist, painting up until his 90th year. His paintings strongly influenced the surrealist movement, providing inspiration for such prominent artists as Max Ernst, Salvador Dali, Rene Magritte, and Philip Guston. His paintings have further helped inspire books, music and even video games.
By 1939, he was painting in a neo-Baroque style, heavily influenced by Peter Paul Rubens, but his later works never received the critical praise that was lavished upon his earlier works. He resented the lack of praise for his later works, which he considered more mature and of better quality. Both for profit and as an act of revenge, De Chirico produced back-dated forgeries of his own works, and denounced many of his previous works as forgeries.

Giorgio de chirico
Giorgio de Chirico, [Manoscritti Eluard], in Giorgio de Chirico Scritti/I, ed. Andrea Cortellessa (Milan: Bompiani, 2008), 612. Translation by the author.
In 1917, recently returned to Italy, de Chirico founded the Scuola Metafisica (or Metaphysical School), formulating its principles with his brother Alberto Savinio and the Futurist artist Carlo Carrà. De Chirico compared the metaphysical work of art to “the flat surface of a perfectly calm ocean,” which “disturbs us…by all the unknown that is hidden in the depth.” 3 The term would come to encompass all his work produced between roughly 1911 and 1917; it is this “metaphysical” period that would prove highly influential to the Surrealists in the following decade.

The founder of the scuola metafisica, Giorgio de Chirico is best known for his metaphysical paintings, produced between 1909 and 1919. These melancholic renderings of low-lit town squares with long shadows and empty walkways would profoundly influence the Surrealists, including André Breton, Salvador Dalí, and René Magritte. In their thematic exploration of alienation, nostalgia, and myth, de Chirico’s works—many of which were exhibited at the Paris Salons—are also said to have influenced filmmakers such as Michelangelo Antonioni and draw parallels with contemporary works by Edward Hopper. De Chirico later rejected his earlier metaphysical style and became interested in traditional painting techniques, working in Neoclassical or neo-Baroque styles influenced by Raphael, Luca Signorelli, and Peter Paul Rubens. The Surrealists were publicly critical of this anti-modern development in de Chirico’s work and the artist eventually ended his association with the group. He cited the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche as a deep influence.
The founder of the scuola metafisica, Giorgio de Chirico is best known for his metaphysical paintings, produced between 1909 and 1919. These melancholic renderings of low-lit town squares with long shadows and empty walkways would profoundly influence the Surrealists, including André Breton, Salvador Dalí, and René Magritte. In their thematic exploration of alienation, nostalgia, and myth, de Chirico’s works—many of which were exhibited at the Paris Salons—are also said to have influenced filmmakers such as Michelangelo Antonioni and draw parallels with contemporary works by Edward Hopper. De Chirico later rejected his earlier metaphysical style and became interested in traditional painting techniques, working in Neoclassical or neo-Baroque styles influenced by Raphael, Luca Signorelli, and Peter Paul Rubens. The Surrealists were publicly critical of this anti-modern development in de Chirico’s work and the artist eventually ended his association with the group. He cited the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche as a deep influence.

References:

http://www.britannica.com/biography/Giorgio-de-Chirico
http://www.wikiart.org/en/giorgio-de-chirico
http://www.moma.org/artists/1106
http://www.artsy.net/artist/giorgio-de-chirico
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giorgio_de_Chirico

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