difference between dada and surrealism
DADA AND SURREALISM
• Dadaism started in 1916 and ended by the year 1920 while Surrealism started after Dadaism had ended in 1924 and continued to find expression in the works of artists and poets till 1939
• Surrealism movement retreated from reality and was regressive in nature as people wanted to forget the atrocities of war
The Dadaist movement included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. Key figures in the movement included Hugo Ball, Marcel Duchamp, Emmy Hennings, Hans Arp, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Francis Picabia, George Grosz, Man Ray, Beatrice Wood, Kurt Schwitters, Hans Richter, and Max Ernst, among others. The movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, and groups including surrealism and pop art.
The roots of Dada lay in pre-war avant-garde. The term anti-art, a precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp around 1913 to characterize works which challenge accepted definitions of art. Cubism and the development of collage and abstract art would inform the movement’s detachment from the constraints of reality and convention. The work of French poets, Italian Futurists and the German Expressionists would influence Dada’s rejection of the tight correlation between words and meaning.
Surrealism is a movement that began in the 1920s. This movement grew out of Dadaism and was greatly influenced by the theories of Sigmund Freud.
The beginning of this movement corresponds to the outbreak of the First World War. Dada was a protest against the bourgeois nationalists and colonial interests, and against intellectual and cultural conformity, which the participants of this movement felt were causes for the war.
Surrealism is dreamlike. It does not have the vibrancy of life; it’s a void. It has the empty effects of another world, strange at times. Can you hear the space? Can you interact with the atmosphere? Can you paint your dreams? These are the motifs for the Surrealists such as Dali and Georgio DiCherico.
The movement was truly international with its echo heard in Romania, Germany, Switzerland, USA. Duchamp’s readymades, where he would work with manufactured goods to create what he would call art was both defiance of the set norms and a satire on the state of things. His toilet sheet sculpture as a piece of art earned him an iconic status as a Dada exponent.
Sigmund Freud believe thoughts and personality were divided into cognizant and unconscious thoughts that gave humans their identity, their inner self their ego and their super-ego. Surrealists believe that with liberal expressionism of ones individual vision creates a nauseas art-for where a surrealists believe that their art typifies Sigmund Frueds theories of thoughts and consciousness in their work. Typically surrealist art will be trying to find order in the human consciousness whereas dada finds disorder.
It was workable for Surrealism to be driven basically in light of the fact that the gathering was independent in Paris rather than being separated by not only different cities, but also entire continents.. Breton was to some degree heavy handed for a pioneer of a cutting edge development, removing individuals who disappointed him or went against the ideals he held fast, however he held the gathering together for a quarter century, a rather surprisingly long life-span in comparison to other movements.
International in scope and diverse in artistic output, both Dada and Surrealism were artistic, literary and intellectual movements of the early 20th century that were instrumental in defining Modernism. The Dada movement, launched in 1916 in Zurich by poets and artists such as Tristan Tzara and Hans Arp, was a direct reaction to the slaughter, propaganda and inanity of World War I. Independent groups linked by common ideas sprung up soon afterwards in New York, Berlin, Paris and elsewhere. These various groups did not share a universal style, but rather were connected by their rejection of idealism, stale artistic and intellectual conventions and modern society’s unchecked embrace of ‘rationalism’ and ‘progress’. They condemned the nationalist and capitalist values that led to the cataclysm of the war and employed unorthodox techniques, performances and provocations to jolt the rest of society into self-awareness. The absurdity of Dada activities created a mirror of the absurdity in the world around them. Dada was anti-aesthetic, anti-rational and anti-idealistic. Key figures such as Marcel Duchamp disturbed the art world with his ready-mades such as Fountain (which is simply a urinal). Dada’s challenge to conventional notions of ‘high art’ radically impacted later developments in conceptual art, performance art and post-modernism among others.
Sophie Taeuber-Arp: Composition of Circles and Overlapping Angles, oil on canvas, 495×641 mm, 1930 (New York, Museum of Modern Art); © 2007 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn, photo © Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA / Art Resource, NY